This initial process is a cold forging process used to produce a near net shape work billet. An important consideration in cold forging is the tendency for the bar to buckle if its unsupported length to diameter ratio is too high. This ratio usually is limited to less than 4:1 but with suitable dies, therefore, cold forging is the most likely production method because bolts have a large head-to-shank ratio, they are longer than 1½ times their diameter, bolts have multiple diameters and finally require a geometrical shape
Furthermore, this production method is probably used because cold heading has a very high production rate, and produces virtually no waste material. The process works as follows: the bar stock is fed into a machine, called a "former". The bar stock is stopped, and then gripped by a gripping die. The gripping die is shaped in such a way that it forms a carriage along the neck of the stock when its full gripping force is applied. An indented punch, the shape of a rounded head, will then proceed to move forward, colliding with the stock and causing the metal to flow at right angles to the ram force provided by the punch, increasing the diameter of the work billet, and reducing its overall length, thus forming a "rounded" head. The work billet is then sheared to the desired length.
The next process applied to the bottom of the work billet is a bulk deformation process known as "thread rolling". This type of cold-forging process is used because cylindrical can easily have thread applied by rolling the work billet through two dies. The thread rolling process is usually chosen over machining because thread rolling provides higher production rates, more effective material usage, stronger thread due to work hardening and finally better fatigue resistance because the work billet undergoes compressive stresses during the rolling process.
The final process induced on the now almost complete bolt is the application of an anti-corrosive layer, to stop oxidation. The usual process is called "blackening"; Either process chemically or physically coats the surface of ferrous metals, creating a strong barrier against humidity and corrosion. Hot Blackening is most popular & common blackening processes:
Hot blackening involves dipping the bolt into six different tanks. The bolt is usually "dipped" by automated part carriers for transportation between tanks. These tanks contain, in order, alkaline cleaner, water, caustic soda at 450°C to 500°C and finally the sealant, which is usually crude oil. The caustic soda bonds chemically to the surface of the metal, creating a porous base layer on the bolt. Crude Oil is then applied to the heated bolt, which seals it by "sinking" into the applied porous layer. It is the crude oil that prevents the corrosion of the bolt. There are many advantages of blackening, following are major
for attractiveness and superior corrosion resistance galvanization may be used. This incurs an additional cost but may extend the life of bolts deployed outdoors considerably.
During the "cold forging" process, the steel bar stock is gripped by gripping dies. In thread rolling, the work billet is held by thread dies. Finally, for the blackening process the bolt is held by automated part carriers.
FASTENERS : ASTM FASTENERS
Fasteners ASTM & SAE Specifications ASTM A36 ASTM A153 ASTM A193 ASTM A194 ASTM A307 ASTM A320 ASTM A325 ASTM A354 ASTM A449 ASTM A490 ASTM A563 ASTM A572 ASTM A588 ASTM B695 ASTM F436 ASTM F593 ASTM F594 ASTM F844 ASTM F1554 ASTM F1941 ASTM F2329 SAE J429
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